Friday, May 22, 2020
Humor has a way of bringing people together. It unites people. In fact, I m rather serious when I suggest that someone should plant a few whoopee cushions in the United Nations. Ã¢â¬â Ron Dentinger What is it about humor that makes us feel closer to someone? Sharing laughter can make two people feel closer to one another, thus, Ã¢â¬Å"humor is an overlooked aspect of marriage.Ã¢â¬ (Koning, E., Weiss, R. 2002). Many researchers have studied the effects of humor in close, intimate relationships and have found that humor seems to play a significant role in satisfaction. Although humor is an important aspect to any relationship, it can be used to bring continual satisfaction to married couples. Why? Perhaps itÃ¢â¬â¢s that humor is related to social intelligence as well as spousal appeal (McGee, E., Shevlin, M., 2009). However, while humor has the capacity to bring two people together, it also has potential to tear them apart. Humor is related to intimacy within a relationshi p, especially for women. (Koning, E., Weiss, R. 2002). Specifically, if humor is used in a negative fashion, reports of relationship satisfaction may be lower than those who encounter the use of positive humor. Overall, Ã¢â¬Å"using humor serves different functions within intimate relationships.Ã¢â¬ (Koning, E., Weiss, R. 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic study of marital satisfaction remains vitalÃ¢â¬ (Bradbury, T. N., Fincham, F. D., Beach, S. R. (2000), because in the Ã¢â¬Å"Western culture more than 90 percent of people are married byShow MoreRelatedNot Just Another Women s Rights Spiel1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdeciding that women of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t possibly write as Shakespeare did due to restrictions placed on them by society. The author intends to call attention to yet another injustice suffered by women in history, but one that is often overlooked: womenÃ¢â¬â¢s influence, or lack thereof, in the arts. It is this unique facet of the classic womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights argument that makes WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s piece effective. WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on gender equality adds relevance to her argument, as it is a decidedly prevalentRead MoreParenthood Is The Story Of The Buckman Family1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesParenthood is the story of the Buckman family and their friends and how they attempt to bring up their children. They suffer and enjoy all the different aspects of life including estranged relatives, the black sheep of the family, the eccentrics, the skeletons in the closet, and the rebellious teenagers. The Buckman family is a typical midwestern family dealing with the basic tribulations of their lives, relatives, raising children, pressures of the job, and learning to be a good parent and spouseRead MoreAnalysis of the Movie Frozen by Dani Colman1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages she attacks how it does not affectively show all of values held by feminists; what she fails to overlook, however, is the idea that the movie was not meant to be a feminist movie, but rather was made to entertain young childrenÃ¢â¬ âit just included aspects that Disney thought was progressive and compliant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Colman does not seem to be validated with her ideas on Frozen; however, her opinions and issues about how Frozen may not be that great of a movie are easily arguable, and even comparableRead MoreHealth Promotion Of South Africa2214 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesmeaning of what they say. This is especially true when speaking their native language, although many of the same characteristics have been carried into their English language usage. The Yoruba often use humor to prevent boredom during long meetings or serious discussions. They believe that embedding humor in their message guarantees that what they say is not readily forgotten. Nigerians living in the south of the country tend to speak more directly. You may also find their tone slightly louder than elsewhereRead MoreMulticultural Issues in the Helping Profession Essay3828 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagescultures. In this new era we live in, interracial marriages and relationships are becoming more customary than forty years ago. When the immigration policy changed allowing more Asians and Hispanics into the United States, the flood gates opened for interracial marriages between Asians and Whites and Hispanics and non-Hispanics (Rosenfeld). Nevertheless, interracial marriages continue to bring up significant disputes, especially marriages between blacks and whites. There are white people whoRead MoreHow does Jonathan Swift represent women in his Stellas Birthday series of poems?1834 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesrobbers attempted to break into her house, and taking an initiative in the absence of any male servants or guests, she took a pistol and shot at the burglars, forcing them to withdraw. Swift takes an unusual step here because he is in fact praising an aspect of her personality which is associated with being masculine rather than feminine - stereotypes which still exist today and portray women as being the fairer sex, and essentially a weaker, less courageous gender, were even more prevalent at the timeRead MoreSatire in Jane Austens Pride in Prejudice Essay3688 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesfocalizers Ã¢â¬â Austen conveys important information about key issues she has with the significance placed on social standing. The the me of class and social standing is echoed constantly throughout AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novel in numerous ways, highlighting several aspects of the gentry that she distrusts. The entirety of the novel focuses mainly on the distances placed between characters due to their social standing in a class based society. Regardless of how fit a person may be in either mind or capabilities, if aRead More Gifted Students and Social Stigma Essay5991 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesprevailing stigmatism of being gifted is being neglected, not only as academics but also as people. Sadly, the truth is that as long as gifted students maintain high grade point averages and therefore raise school achievement records, they are largely overlooked (Johnson 27). They are the prize-winners but never the attention-getters. These students tend to be introverted, on-task, non-discipline issues in class. In a typical classroom the students that are loud, at-risk or discipline problems are the onesRead MoreAnalysis Of Adam Rot hman s From The State Essay1857 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesprovides three narratives about how the South Hinterland-related narrative - Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi - grow into a growing society. Rusman knits together an urgent need for political, economic, social, military history, building this often overlooked area to begin. This task was an ambitious first book, and Rothman, in general, proved himself to be writing this historical task. A review of his methodology shows the time and energy of entering this book. The sources of this study vary widelyRead More Analysis of Much Ado About Nothing Essay3681 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesthese wars? But how many hath he / killed? For indeed I promised to eat all of his killing.quot; (Act I, scene 1; 40-42)Throughout the play, she is very clever with words displaying considerable intellectual ability as well as a natural ability for humor. And her way with words is sharpened when the target is Bene*censored*. It is obvious that right from the beginning, Beatrice has a grudge against Bene*censored*. It becomes apparent that she has been previously been hurt by him. It is also apparent
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Epimone (pronounced eh-PIM-o-nee) is aÃ rhetorical term for the frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point. Also known asÃ perseverantia, leitmotif, and refrain.In Shakespeares Use of the Arts of Language (1947), Sister Miriam Joseph observes thatÃ epimone is an effective figure in swaying the opinions of a crowd because of its insistent repetition of an idea in the same words. In his Arte of English Poesie (1589), George Puttenham called epimone the long repeat and the love burden. See Examples and Observations below. Also see: CommoratioEpizeuxisSemantic SatiationSymploce EtymologyFrom the Greek, tarrying, delay Examples All his brains are in the nape of his neck, Simon Dedalus says. Welts of flesh behind on him. Fat folds of neck, fat, neck, fat, neck.(James Joyce, Ulysses, 1922)Mr. Dick shook his head, as utterly renouncing the suggestion; and having replied a great many times, and with great confidence, No beggar, no beggar, no beggar, sir!(Charles Dickens, David Copperfield, 1850)We forget all too soonÃ theÃ things we thought we could never forget.Ã We forgetÃ theÃ lovesÃ and theÃ betrayals alike,Ã forgetÃ whatÃ we whisperedÃ and whatÃ we screamed,Ã forgetÃ whoÃ we were.(Joan Didion, Keeping a Notebook, 1968)Epimone in Shakespeares OthelloPut money in thy purse; follow thou the wars; defeat thy favor withan usurped beard; I say, put money in thy purse. Itcannot be that Desdemona should long continue herlove to the Moor--put money in thy purse--nor hehis to her: it was a violent commencement, and thoushalt see an answerable sequestration: put butmoney in thy purse.(Ia go in William Shakespeares Othello, Act 1, scene 3)Epimone in Shakespeares Julius CaesarWho is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him I have offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any speak; for him have I offended.(Brutus in William Shakespeares Julius Caesar, Act 3, scene 2)Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest--For Brutus is an honourable man;So are they all, all honourable men--Come I to speak in Caesars funeral.He was my friend, faithful and just to me;But Brutus says he was ambitious;And Brutus is an honourable man.He hath brought many captives home to RomeWhose ransoms did the general coffers fill;Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept:Ambition should be made of sterner stuff:Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;And Brutus is an honourable man.You all did see that on the LupercalI thrice presented him a kingly crown,Which he did thrice refuse. Was this ambition?Yet Brutus says he was ambitiou s;And, sure, he is an honourable man. . . .(Mark Antony in William Shakespeares Julius Caesar, Act 3, scene 2)Epimone as a FallacyThere is a figure of speech termed epimone . . . , the purpose of which is to render some word or thought ridiculous by its frequent repetition, and showing its grotesque character as an element of argument. But sometimes from the frequent repetition of a thought, is deduced one of the most subtle fallacies known to language. This fallacy is often resorted to by unscrupulous men during the excitement of political contests, when some idea or point is assumed without proof to the detriment and prejudice of a man or party; and though it may have no just foundation for support, yet is dwelt upon and commented on so frequently, that the ignorant assume that the charge must be true, else it would not receive so much consideration; they apply to the matter under consideration the old adage: That where there is so much smoke there must be some fire.(Daniel F. Mil ler, Rhetoric as an Art of Persuasion: From the Standpoint of a Lawyer. Mills, 1880)Calvinos EpimoneYou are about to begin reading Italo Calvinos new novel, If on a winters night a traveler. Relax. Concentrate. Dispel every other thought. Let the world around you fade. Best to close the door; the TV is always on in the next room. Tell the others right away, No, I dont want to watch TV! Raise your voice--they wont hear you otherwise--Im reading! I dont want to be disturbed! Maybe they havent heard you, with all that racket; speak louder, yell; Im beginning to read Italo Calvinos new novel! . . .Find the most comfortable position: seated, stretched out, curled up, or lying flat. Flat on your back, on your side, on your stomach. In an easy chair, on the sofa, in the rocker, the deck chair, on the hassock. In the hammock, if you have a hammock. On top of your bed, of course, or in the bed. You can even stand on your hands, head down, in the yoga position. With the book upside down, natu rally.Of course, the ideal position for reading is something you can never find. In the old days they used to read standing up, at a lectern. People were accustomed to standing on their feet, without moving. They rested like that when they were tired of horseback riding. Nobody ever thought of reading on horseback; and yet now, the idea of sitting in the saddle, the book propped against the horses mane, or maybe tied to the horses ear with a special harness, seems attractive to you.(Italo Calvino, If on a winters night a traveler, 1979/1981)
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Math Term Papers - What Is It? The customized term paper writing is only a form of modified term paper writing on account of the degree of research is described by the teachers. For the reason, it's unlikely you will ever be called on to compose a term paper on math. When you get a term paper from us, you may rest assured that we'll carefully comply with all the assignment instructions and supply you with a 100% error-free paper that will guarantee a great grade. A good deal of prior Term Paper is needed by the student to compose the Term Paper properly. Our writers can help you to discover the ideal math term paper topics along with interesting mathematics term paper topics. You only ought to mention those sources that relate to your particular theme of research. To compose a research paper on Mathematics isn't an issue for our writers. You are able to get your term paper done in time, and ensure it is awesome! As the paper is organized it's important to realize how to make your first draft in order for your economic term papers will wind up being as informative and successful because they can be. The expression paper is normally categorized in two distinct categories like the analytical term papers and argumentative term papers. When you're writing your research paper's introduction, you ought to be building it around a particular outline that supplies a general review of the paper. Once you've got a concept of what a prosperous math writing assignment appears like, it is going to be much easier to finish your own. Maths is an extremely challenging subject which requires rigorous preparation given that you don't lose your patience. Order from us multiple times, and you are going to be qualified for attractive discounts! It is significantly more than that. Students may not have the opportunity to do their p apers efficiently and that is the reason why we are here in order to provide help. The 30-Second Trick for Math Term Papers A Mathematics term paper demands great quantity of research and requires right approach to each point or idea employed in it as each and every point has to be supported by logical conclusions and valid proofs. These papers are extremely prominent these days on account of the practical understanding of their work life they need to understand how can they write down different manners of topics in different that is precisely why these papers are introduced in the education sector for the advantage of the learning. Therefore, they are actually a way of training the students for research and exploration. They are very efficiently written because these writings are disseminating the information in a more proper way than any other resources. You are not just very likely to make errors, there may be potential issues with plagiarism. Understand your topic well and make sure that you explain your points in easy and understandable language. There's a specific procedure of how essays ought to be written. You might also lack enough knowledge on the subject, or you aren't good in using English language for writing essays. Math Term Papers It's really important to get personal approach to each customer. Nevertheless, the real key to a prosperous research paper is organization. The other one might be the cooperative strategy. Just do good research for reliable company, and you are not going to regret your choice. Understanding Math Term Papers The crucial portion of mathematics is abstraction that offers the chance to codify out knowledge about several examples and so to learn their common capabilities. These new findings could be in the shape of a survey result or some equation that's confirming the theories which ar en't discussed before. Write a succinct outline of what you wish to say and wherever your research will go, to allow it to be simpler to compose your very first draft. Create guidelines of what you would like to achieve in your research.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Courts: An Overview of Three Empirical Studies Tincen Vithayathil University of Baltimore The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Courts: Three Empirical Studies Since the origination of drug treatment courts, there has been countless numbers of offenders who have successfully completed the program and fought their way past drug abuse. There are also a handful of offenders who may have struggled to change their drug abuse or addiction, and fell short of completing the program. In this second part of my report, I will be determining whether drug treatment court programs actually work. To accomplish this task, I will be reviewing three empirical studies to evaluate how effective the program truly is. The first empirical study that I will be reviewing is the Orange County Juvenile Drug Court (OCJDC) located in Orange County, California between 1999 and 2006 (Fradella, Fischer, Kleinpeter, Koob, 2009). This study consists of 232 teenagers (164 males and 68 females) with the age of these individuals ranging between 12 and 17 years (Fradella et al., 2009). In this study, researche rs attempt to understand why Latino teenagers were graduating from drug treatment court (DTC) at a much lower rate than rest of the teenagers at the same institution (Fradella et al., 2009). In the Orange County Juvenile Drug Court, 97% of the offenders are Latino or Caucasian (Fradella et al., 2009). However, Latinos were graduating at a rate ofShow MoreRelatedQuasi-Experimental Group Design To Compare Recidivism Rates Of Opioid Offenders?892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesoffenders in drug courts compared to offenders on probation. Since, random assignment to control and experimental groups are not feasible, the two groups will be matched on various demographic characteristics as well as the current choice of drug. The data will be collected on all participants that have entered the Brooklyn Treatment Court, NY (BTC) in the second judicial district, and a comparison group of offenders on traditional probation. Sample The BTC offers substance abuse treatment for nonviolentRead MoreDifferences Between The Success Rate Of Drug Courts974 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrate of drug courts? A. History of Drug Courts 1. Brief history of drug courts 2. Where was the first drug court? 3. Explain drug court model 4. Who is eligible for drug court treatment? 5. What happens after successful completion of drug courts 6. Penalties for drug court failure. B. Drug Addictions 1. Are there gender differences in drug addiction? 2. What causes female drug addiction/dependency? 3. What causes male drug addiction/dependency? C. Drug Court Recidivism Rates 1. Female drug offenderÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreComparison of Drug Courts or Cognitive Behavior Therapy to Battle Cocaine Addiction1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe differences between the effectiveness of drug courts and cognitive behavioral therapy for cocaine addicts. We know that all people respond differently to therapy than others do, but it is good to be able to find the effectiveness and success rate of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and drug courts overall. But before we jump into the effectiveness of CBT, we need to know what the goal of CBT is and what the process is for CBT. Not only do we need to know the effectiveness and success rates of theseRead MoreCriminal Behavior And The Justice System Essay1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesspecialty courts that are designed to better address these particular causes of criminal behavior. The goal of these courts is to better address the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s reason that they engaged in criminal behavior in hopes that with the additional support, in the future the individual will become a productive member of society. What are specialty Courts? Specialty courts are becoming more and more popular throughout the country. Specialty courts are also commonly referred to as problem-solving courts. TheseRead MoreLength Of Treatment Analysis875 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLength of Treatment Evans et al. (2011) focused on two separate treatment groups (high-risk offenders low-risk offenders) who were followed-up on at the 12 and 30 month mark after they were assessed for treatment. The length of treatment, not the classification risk of the offender, was found to be a significant variable of recidivism as those who received a longer length of treatment were less likely to be re-arrested Evans et al. (2011). Because not all offenders are guaranteed treatment, in someRead MoreEvaluation Of A Juvenile Drug Court Program1515 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstudy will be reviewed. The article is an evaluation of a Juvenile Drug Court Program in Lexington, Kentucky. The data that is coming from the Bureau of Justice suggests that juvenile courts process a higher volume of cases today than at any time in the past (Hayden, 2012) These statistics represent the trend in persistently high rates in use of illegal substances among adolescents in the United States and subsequent juvenile cou rt involvement. [The purpose of this study was to examine these outcomesRead MoreHistory And Impact Of Drug Treatment Courts1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe History and Impact of Drug Treatment Courts Tincen Vithayathil University of Baltimore The History and Impact of Drug Courts Between 1990 and 1999, individuals who were convicted of a drug crime rose past 100,000, which accounted for 20 percent of our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s increased prison population (Lurigio, 2008). Between 1995 and 2003, the number of drug-related offenders constituted the largest increase of criminals in our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s prison population (Lurigio, 2008). In 2004, approximatelyRead MoreMaking A New Type Of Social Justice System863 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesForemost, specialty court intervention provides a chance for social workers to promote a new type of social justice. Therapeutic justice principles not only focus on treatment services for criminal offenders, but it also includes promoting autonomy, emphasizing non-paternalism, a volitional choice to change unwanted behavior, and recognizing procedural and distributive justice (Redlich Han, 2014). Promoting therapeutic justice will help fight against the social injustices embedded within the criminalRead MoreProbation And Parole1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe history of probation and parole influences the decisions that are made in the Adult Court System toward the supervision of adult offenders by considering community corrections and involve supervision in the community. In the criminal justice system, there are many individuals locked up in local, state, and federal institutions. John Augustus probation bears much resemblance to probation as it is practiced today. He took great care in deciding which prisoners were promising candidates for probationRead MoreEffectiveness Of Mental Health Essay1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Effectiveness of mental health court The incarceration of people with mental illness has grown to be a serious social, clinical and economic concern (Hawthorne, 2012). There is an estimated 804,000 people in the United States annually that enters into the system (NcNiel Binder, 2007). Majority are non-violent, low-level misdemeanor offenders that cycle in and out of the prison system due to the multiple barriers they encounter when attempting to access mental health services within the community
Is Female Genital Mutilation A Moral Practice Female genital mutilation (FGM) is not a morally justified practice. It is an unnecessary procedure that has no medical health benefits to the girls and women it is being performed on. According to Utilitarianism, we should produce the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest number affected. We will write a custom essay sample on Female Genital Mutilation or any similar topic only for you Order Now UtilitarianÃ¢â¬â¢s also believe that we should alleviate the greatest amount of pain and suffering for the greatest number affected. Based on Utilitarian grounds, FGM has no medical health benefits and it is a completely unnecessary act on females in this culture. It is also an extremely painful procedure that has very serious short term and long term side effects, including death. Jeremy Bentham, an Act Utilitarian, developed the hedonic calculus, which is a Ã¢â¬Å"scientificÃ¢â¬ methodology for determining which pleasures ought to be pursued and which pains ought to be avoided. FGM is an example of the pains that Ã¢â¬Å"oughtÃ¢â¬ to be avoided. This principle enables individuals to provide good reasons for their course of action. When we are deliberating about the right thing to do, Bentham maintains that we must always account for the pleasures and pains. Examples of this are the intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, remoteness, fecundity, purity and extent of the pleasure or pain. In order to understand why FGM is not a morally justified practice and why it goes against the principles of Utilitarianism, you have to know what FGM is. You need to learn who it is being performed on and what age, why it is being done, where it is happening, how it is performed, and what short term and long term side effects occur, after this procedure has been done. The pain and suffering that is resulting from this procedure is going against the greatest happiness principle of Utilitarianism. There is a reason why it is no longer called female circumcision and is now being referred to as female genital mutilation. FGM is an un-safe, un-sterile procedure that is taking place in many foreign countries around the world including Egypt, the Sudan, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Malaysia (Winter, Par. 6). FGM harms girls and women in these cultures by causing them severe pain and multiple serious side effects. According to the hedonic calculus, and the principle of intensity, it states that some pleasures and pains are more intense than others. The girls or women in this culture are being put through an extreme amount of intense pain for no beneficial reason. The procedure is being done by midwives or older Ã¢â¬Å"experiencedÃ¢â¬ women in the villages that do not have any medical training and are not educated in the field of medicine. Not only is FGM a dangerous procedure, but it also has physical, sexual and mental consequences (Amnesty International USA, Par. 3). According to the World Health Organization, this practice has many serious side effects including shock, hemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue (Par. 13). Other side effects can include death, serious infections, HIV, abscesses, small benign tumors, and clitoral cysts (wolvesdream, Par. 5). The World Health Organization has also reported many long term consequences which include; recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, cysts, infertility, an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths (Par. 4). It can also lead to a need for later surgeries in life (Par. 14). For example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening needs to be cut open later in life to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth (Par. 14). In this same procedure, women could be cut and stitched repeatedly, leading to further complications and more long term risks. Alon g with the high risk of short term and long term side effects, the biggest issue resulting from this procedure is death. FGM is the removal of all or part of the external parts of the female genitalia. It is a cultural practice that started in some African countries over 2000 years ago (wolvesdream, Par. 1). According to this same source, FGM is primarily a cultural practice, not a religious practice (Par. 1). However, in some cultures they do include it as part of their religion (Par. 1). In these foreign countries, FGM has become something that is just expected and defines them to their culture (Par. 1). According to the people in this culture, girls will not become women, or adults for that matter, if this procedure is not performed. Most will be considered un-clean and will not be able to marry without the procedure (Par. 9). In some cultures, the reasoning for this procedure, is that it will reduce the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for sex, therefore reducing the chance of sex outside the marriage (Amnesty International USA, Par. 7). We can refer this to the purity aspect of the hedonic calculus, which states that some pleasures or pains are purer than others. Why is it fair to take away the pleasure of sexual intercourse from women, but not from men in this culture? What prevents the men from going outside the vows of a marriage? What is reducing their desire for sex and why are they considered Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ without performing some kind of horrendous procedure? In this culture, since marriage is often the only role available for women, it is impossible for them to marry if they have not undergone this procedure (Par. 7). Is this procedure only being done to women in this culture because they do not value women? Is their only role in the community reproduction in order to maintain the culture and its practices? FGM is carried out at various ages in a girlÃ¢â¬â¢s life but it is most frequently around the ages of four to eight years of age (wolvesdream, Par. 3). Referring back to BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s hedonic calculus and the principle of remoteness, it states that some pleasures and pains may come sooner than others. The girls that are enduring this procedure are at a very young, immature and undeveloped age. However, the pain inflicted in the procedure doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t end here. It can be a lifetime of pain and suffering with every sexual encounter or birth. Looking further at the hedonic calculus and the principle of certainty or uncertainty, it states that there is either pleasure or pain in an act. The girls in this culture are forced into this procedure knowing that they will have to endure an extreme amount of pain that could last a lifetime, depending on the circumstances. According to an article written on FGM, there are three different types of FGM that take place in different cultures (Par. 3). The first one is called Sunna Circumcision which is the removal of the prepuce (retractable fold of skin, or hood) or the tip of the clitoris (Par. ). In this culture Sunna is Arabic for Ã¢â¬Å"traditionÃ¢â¬ (Par. 3). The second type is Clitoridectomy which is the removal of the entire clitoris (prepuce and glands) and the removal of the adjacent labia (Par. 3). The third type is called infibulation (pharonic circumcision) which consists of performing a clitoridectomy (removal of all or part of the labia minora, the labia majora) (Par. 3). This is then stitched up allowing only a small hole to remain open to allow for urine and menstrual blood to flow through (Par. 3). To conduct this procedure the midwives or village women use various un-sanitized instruments including; broken glass, tin can lids, blunt knives, scissors, and razor blades (Amnesty International USA, Par. 3). In most cases, these items are used repeatedly, without any type of sterilization or disinfecting. This practice has lead to the rapid spread of many diseases, high infection rates and HIV. Typically, this procedure is performed without any anesthesia and there are no antibiotics given to prevent infection. The only medical treatment they receive is being stitched up using anything from cat or lamb intestine, to the use of thorns (Par. ). If infibulation or a clitoridectomy is performed, their legs are bound for up to two months while their wounds heal, leaving them immobilized (Par. 3). We can refer this back to the hedonic calculus and the principle of duration, which states that some pleasures or pains will last longer than others. Depending on the type of procedure done and how it is done, these girls could endure a lifetime of pain and suffering resulting from this practice. According to research, an estimated 135 million girls and women have undergone FGM and 2 million girls a year are at risk for having this procedure done (Amnesty International USA, Par. ). This accounts for approximately 6,000 girls per day (Amnesty International USA, Par. 5). Referring back to the hedonic calculus, the extent of pain and suffering that is being inflicted on the girls and women of this culture is astounding and the numbers are staggering. After reading about FGM and the culture it is being performed in, some cultural relativists may argue that the ethical understandings vary between cultures and what may be considered morally wrong in one culture may be perfectly acceptable in another. However, considering the fact that FGM involves the deliberate infliction of severe pain and suffering and that its effects can be life threatening, it does not follow the greatest happiness principle in Utilitarianism. Not only is it a violation of the rights of females but because it is most commonly performed on girls ranging in age from birth to adolescence, it is a grave violation of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Human Rights (Amnesty International USA, Par. 10). In conclusion, female genital mutilation is not a morally justified practice because it goes against the greatest happiness principle of Utilitarianism. It violates the rights of females and female children. It causes serious pain and suffering that can last a lifetime. The amount and seriousness of the side effects outnumber any traditional or religious values that some cultures believe in. Therefore, according to Utilitarian grounds, we should produce the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest number affected by eliminating this cultural practice all together. In doing this we would be alleviating the greatest amount of pain and suffering for the greatest number affected. Works Cited Amnesty International USA. Action for Human Rights. Hope for Humanity. n. d. Female Genital Mutilation: A Fact Sheet. Web. 27 Sept. 2010. Ã¢â¬Å"Female Genital Mutilation. Ã¢â¬ n. p. wolvesdreams. tripod. com. n. d. Web. 25 Sept. 2010. Winter, Mary. Ã¢â¬Å"Female Genital Mutilation. Ã¢â¬ The Rocky Mountain News, 31 Jan. 1996. Print. World Health Organization. Female Genital Mutilation, 2010. Web. 25 Sept. 2010. How to cite Female Genital Mutilation, Papers
Question: Discuss about theCharacteristics of Leadership for Communication Skills. Answer: Introduction Leadership is one of the most important qualities that play a key role in management; it is at the center stage of every successful organization. Every leader who wishes to derive success from his or her organization should display leadership characteristics, and in that connection, any successful organization always has a leader with exemplary leadership qualities. Management, therefore, involves a number of leadership qualities, which some of these can be learned while others can just be copied from successful leaders (Phelps, 2012). Some characteristics of leadership, although the list here is not exhaustive, are explained below: Communication skills Communication is a fundamental characteristic of leadership because every leader is expected to speak properly to his or her audience. It is worth to note that communication is something that takes place all the time; therefore, a leader is expected to be somebody who can express his or her ideas clearly and in a manner that the audience will comprehend the content being spoken (Hamel Prahalad, 2005). Communication skill is a leadership characteristic that can be learned through teaching, for instance, many courses including those concerning management, are accompanied by communication skills as support courses. Therefore, people studying management in schools can have an opportunity to study communication skills. Flexibility A leader is expected to be flexible in his or her decisions. He should not be someone who sticks to the status quo all the times without allowing room for changes. In management, leaders are constantly faced with instances when they are required to adopt a new idea, hence forcing them to be flexible (Loudenback, Kelley, 2013). Flexibility enables them to view the changes as those that would help them achieve their goals and objectives. Problem-solving A leader is highly expected to be someone who can solve problems because he or she is constantly faced with many problems in or outside the workplace. Problem-solving is a leadership characteristic that every leader must possess because leaders work with their employees all the times (Jenster, Hover, 2014). Characteristics of leadership in relation to Jack Ma Jack Ma has shown great leadership skills despite the fact that he does not possess high academic qualifications. Jack Ma started his online business, the Alibaba.com, but he had very little knowledge the computers and the internet. Many entrepreneurs, for instance, the founder of Facebook, Zuckerberg, is a graduate of computer science, but Jack Ma started had very little knowledge of computing. It is important to note that these CEOs have some common unique leadership skills. Global business like the one owned by Jack Ma may be a complex entity that requires certain qualities to ensure the management is successful. Alibaba.com is an online business that sells its goods online through the internet. This means that the business has several employees that have to respond and get direction from their CEO. Therefore, the CEO has a bigger role to play in ensuring that the operations of the business are that conforms with his ideas. The following characteristics can be derived from the leadership of Jack Ma, they include Charismatic and visionary If we study his leadership style, we can conclude that Jack Ma is a charismatic leader because the business he started was based on the internet, however, at the time he was doing that, the internet was an illusion in China, and nobody thought he could link business with internet to come up with e-business (Hopkins, 2013). He is visionary in the sense that he could invent this business and struggle to see it successful. Due to the changing business ideas, competition, and employee demands, it may not be easy to invent a business, which is internet-based, and constantly improve it to be one of the best of its own kind. Being focus Jack Ma is a leader who is focused on ensuring that his business is prospering despite challenges, and having little knowledge in internet technology, he still managed to be one the most aspiring innovator. Determination In order to achieve results, entrepreneurship requires a determined and consistent approach. In Jack Mas leadership, we see a determined person throughout despite difficulties and challenges. It is through this that his business has shown exemplary achievements. Evidence that people and social community agree with his leadership in the business sector Many people feel that Jack Ma leadership is one of the best. This is evident from the references made in journals, magazines, and the social media platform. Majority of the people think that Alibaba.com is a successful business, and indeed, they have proven to be the most searched on the internet (Dobni, Dobni, Luffman, (2008). Jack Ma has received several invitations to many universities to give a lecture on management. When he began the business, people thought he might not succeed since his education was not in line with the kind of business he is involved. Jack Ma struggled with education, and at times, he could not successfully pass his examinations to enable him to pursue higher learning. The story tells us that he later tried to get admission to best universities like Harvard, but he was unsuccessful. Despite several challenges that come with global business, and especially, online businesses, Jack Ma still managed to be one of the most admirable businesspeople in the world. Conclusion Management is a field that needs a combination of leadership skills necessary to ensure that the business achieves its goals and objectives. Every leader who wishes to derive success from his or her organization should display leadership characteristics, and in that connection, any successful organization always has a leader with exemplary leadership qualities (Chisnall, 2012). It is important to note that leadership skills can be learned in schools or copied from individuals who have shown success in their leadership styles. References Chisnall, P. (2012). Education and organizational management skills: Systematic business management. Long Range Planning, 13(1), 99. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301 (80)90070-9 Dobni, B., Dobni, D., Luffman, G. (2008). Behavioral approaches to Management Skills. Learning Intelligence Planning, 19(6), 400-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02634500110405405 Hopkins, D. (2013). New emphases in business administration, culture, and change. Business Management, 6(6), 410-419. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0019-8501(77)90003 Jenster, P., Hover, D. (2014). How to focus on management principles to serve business ideas. Planning Review, 20(4), 32-36. https://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb054365 Loudenback, L., Kelley, E. (2013). Comparative Education on business strategy and career development. Journal of Education, 36(4), 113. https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250442 Phelps, E. (2012).Entrepreneurship skills versus business skills. Industrial Development and business ethics, 10(4), 307-309. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0019-8501 (81)90042-0
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Introduction The nineteenth century was a time of great revolution in the fields of agriculture, communication, transportation, technology, marketing and industry. It is in this period that the collapse of great empires like Portugal, Spain, Mughal, China, and the Holy Roman kingdom happened.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Religion: The nineteenth century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As a result, great empires like Germany, Britain, Japan and United States came into being. Great philosophers and religious leaders such as William Booth, who was the main founder of the Salvation Army, Karl Max, Ellen White, and John Stuart Mill, a great philosopher, among others, also arose in this century.1 This century marked the beginning of great evangelical revivals in various protestant churches. In this century, the modern scientific theory started having its way into the church, something that transformed the way Christians view their faith. Scientific theories like Darwinism encouraged Christian followers to become inquisitive and many of them started doubting the beliefs and values they previously held.2 Consequently, Christians deviated from the regular and traditional observance of religion and belief in biblical teachings to secularism and faith in personal gods.3 As soon as the radical effects of scientific secularism became prevalent in the Christian churches, several theologians and scholars like Friedrich Schleiermacher came up to defend Christianity.4 Unfortunately, their defense did little to protect Christianity from the criticism it faced, since it led to the emergence of liberal theology and Christianity. Liberal theology is on the other side of the same secularism coin, in view of the fact that it facilitated further criticism against the bible after its inception. Liberal theology is defined as a flexible method of understanding and knowing God. Although it uses the scrip ture, liberal theology still applies the same interpretations and principles used in exploring non-biblical ancient writings.5 This new philosophy has made it almost impossible for Christians to continue believing the bible is a divinely inspired script that is supposed to dictate their spiritual lives. Instead, they subject the bible to human reasoning and questioning, an action that greatly compromises its authority.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This compromise is so grave such that the bible is taken to be an anthology that records the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own feelings and beliefs about God.6 Liberalism has led to the emergence of further criticisms against the bible, therefore creating more reliance on human experience rather than the bible. In an attempt to reject this influence, various radicals have decided to acquire their own religion. Christian fundamentalist s arose to oppose these critical approaches to the scripture during the nineteenth century.7 However, their opposition was a futile attempt as it did not prevent atheistic scientific theories from influencing Christians. These criticisms have led to the emergence of new knowledge concerning religion and science, a factor that has encouraged deism among Christians. It appears like every effort to defend God or the bible results into further attacks on Christianity. Although the intentions of earlier scholars and theologians like Friedrich Schleiermacher were to defend the scriptures, at some point they deviated from this objective. What Went Wrong? Deviation from Initial Intentions Modern scientific theories like Darwinism are responsible for secularism, the religion of humanity that does not acknowledge or give any credit to God or allow His worship.8 Secularism and humanism mainly focus on cultural achievements of humans and their possibility of getting fulfillment in this world. D arwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theories place the authority of the bible at stake since theories of evolution make the creation story in Genesis to appear erroneous. They make the bible look like a simple a collection of different literary genres such as poetry, parables and stories among others, which simply speak of human experiences. This has led to the development of new critical approaches to the bible, aimed at questioning the facts contained in it. In the nineteenth century, the liberal Christians emerged to defend the authority of the scripture and the reality and existence of God, but they erred when they deviated from conservative Christian beliefs to secularism.9 These liberals also compromise Christianity by subjecting the principles of the bible to human reasoning and wisdom instead of relying on faith.10 Darwinism theory promotes modernism, which motivates some Protestants to formulate a liberalistic approach to Christianity. Even though these scholarsÃ¢â¬â¢ main aim is defending th e authority of the bible, they normally subject it to further criticism.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Religion: The nineteenth century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, says that Christianity probably appears as foolishness to the intelligent.11 He says that the bible is spiritually discerned and can appear as nonsense when subjected to the reasoning of human beings.12 Subjecting biblical concepts to criticisms that are based on the understanding of humans, is considered erroneous since their wisdom, knowledge, and intelligence is limited. How the efforts to defend God or scriptures resulted into the breakdown of an attack on Christian thought The efforts by the liberals to defend the scripture were necessary at that time when a lot of criticism was being directed towards its authority. However, instead of resolving the issue, this defense led to further criticisms ag ainst Christianity as outlined below: The movement focused more on retaining the spiritual and religious values of Christianity while at the same time denying the infallible authority of the scripture upon which these values are based. This attempt to exclude the bible from Christianity gave room for other teachings to define it. This provision compromised the basis upon which Christianity is built. Instead of looking at the bible in its complete perspective, including the divine and corporeal aspects, this movement was attached to the physical aspects of the word of God. The bible defines itself as a scripture that is spiritual and divine.13 After doing away with the divine aspect of the bible, they made it appear like any other literal work or book of fiction that advocates for secularism. This movement was aimed at denying the scripture its rightful authority. Denying the word of God amounts to denying GodÃ¢â¬â¢s authority and power and this is manifested in acts such as quest ioning His existence. The existence of God and the authority of the scripture are the essence of Christianity and are the pillars upon which this faith is based. The removal of these facts makes Christianity no different from atheism. These efforts were aimed at reconciling Darwinism and Christianity. Scientific reasoning diluted Christianity and its influence, and altered its teachings, values and beliefs. This movement denounced the existence of miracles and divine healings and people started preferring naturalistic explanations. Miracles started being dismissed as legends or myths that did not exist and by this they denounced the existent of the spiritual world. The bible declares that God is a spiritual being that is invisible.14 The fact that a person has never experienced a miracle or seen God does not nullify His existence. Denying His existence only leads to further attacks on Christianity. This movement is more of a Darwinism interest group as it lays emphasis on the value and importance of the individual rather than that of God. It aims at improving the life of human beings rather than strengthening their relationship with their creator, which is the major aim of Christianity. This movement has made the belief in God to be based on individual experiences, since its followers misconstrue the bible to be a collection of the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal experiences with Him. This belief held by liberalists has completely changed Christianity in terms of the way it is perceived and interpreted. In conclusion, the attempt by the nineteenth century theologians and scholars to defend the bible against the influence of Darwinism only encouraged more criticism against Christianity. This attempt was a way to accommodate the humanism beliefs portrayed by Darwin, which eventually led to the emergence of a new religion called liberal Christianity. Liberal Christianity is responsible for the persistent criticisms against the bible and has since its inception only led to further disagreements among Christians. Bibliography Ayers, Philip E. What Ever Happened to Respect? Bloomington: Author House, 2006. Barnes, Michael H. Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate. London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010. Webster, John B., and George P. Schner. Theology after Liberalism: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000.Advertising Looking for research paper on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Footnotes 1 Michael H. Barnes, Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate (London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010), 2. 2 Ibid., 2. 3 Ibid., 2. 4 Ibid., 27 5 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 346. 6 Michael H. Barnes, Understanding Religion and Science: Introducing the Debate (London: Continuum International Publishing, 2010), 104. 7 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 24. 8 Philip E. Ayers, What Ever Happened to Respect? (Bloomington: Author House, 2006), 94. 9 John B. Webster and George P. Schner, Theology after Liberalism: A Reader (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000), 104. 10 1 Cor. 2:5 11 Ibid., 1: 21 12 Ibid., 1: 18 13 2 Tim 3:16 14 John. 4:24 This research paper on Religion: The nineteenth century was written and submitted by user RoxanneSimpson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.